Economies

Frontier economies refer to the countries that have already started a process of economic development and are able to offer opportunities and high returns in the long run. Emerging economies are considered to be in a transitional phase, while developed economies are characterised by a high level of economic growth and security.

Photographies: all images are taken by Lorenzo Riccardi during the Grand Tour.

Afghanistan
Afghanistan

Capital Kabul, population 35.5 million, official language Pashto and Dari, official currency Afghan Afghani, low income, main imports machines, mineral products, vegetable products, transportation, main exports vegetable products, precious metals, mineral products and textiles

Andorra
Andorra

Capital Andorra la Vella, population 77 thousand, official language Catalan, official currency Euro, high income, main imports foodstuffs, chemical products, machines, transportation, main exports machines, precious metals, mineral products, instruments

Argentina
Argentina

Capital Buenos Airlines, population 44 million, official language Spanish, official currency Argentine Peso, high income, main imports machines, transportation, chemical products, mineral products, main exports foodstuffs, vegetable products, transportation, and animal and vegetable bi-products

Armenia
Armenia

Capital Yerevan, population 3 million, official language Armenian, official currency Armenian Dram, lower-middle income, main imports machines, mineral products, chemical products, foodstuffs, main exports mineral products, precious metals, foodstuffs, metals

Australia
Australia

Capital Canberra, population 24.7 million, official language English, official currency Australian Dollar, high income, main imports machines, transportation, mineral products, chemical products, main exports mineral products, precious metals, animal products and metals

Austria
Austria

Capital Vienna, population 8.8 million, official language Austrian German, official currency Euro, high income, main imports machines, transportation, chemical products, metals, main exports machines, metals, chemical products, transportation

Azerbaijian
Azerbaijian

Capital Baku, population 9.82 million, official language Azerbaijani, official currency Azerbaijani Menat, upper-middle income, main imports machines, metals, transportation and chemical products, main exports mineral products

Bahrain
Bahrain

Capital Manama, population 1.45 million, official language Arabic, official currency Bahraini Diran, high income, main imports transportation, machines, chemical products and metals, main exports mineral products, metals, machines

Bangladesh
Bangladesh

Capital Dhaka, population 163.19 million, official language Bengali, official currency Bangladeshi Taka, lower-middle income, main imports textiles, machines, metals, chemical products, main exports textiles

Belgium
Belgium

Capital Brussels, population 11.35 million, official language French and Dutch, official currency Euro, high income, main imports machines, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, main exports chemicals, machines, metal products

Bhutan
Bhutan

Capital Timphu, population 804 thousand, official language Dzongkha, official currency Bhutanese ngultrum, lower-middle income, main imports machines, mineral products, transportation and metals, main exports metals, chemical products, plastics and rubbers

Bolivia
Bolivia

Capital Sucre, La Paz, population 11 million, official language Spanish, official currency Boliviano, lower-middle income, main imports machines, transportation, chemical products, metals, main exports mineral products, precious metals and foodstuffs

Botswana
Botswana

Capital Gaborone, population 2.18 million, official language English and Setswana, official currency Botswana Pula, upper-middle income, main imports foodstuffs, machines, transport equipment and textiles, main exports precious metals and mineral products

Brazil
Brazil

Capital Brasilia, population 207.68 million, official language Portuguese, official currency Brazilian Real, upper-middle income, main imports machines, chemical products, mineral products and transportation, main exports vegetable products, mineral products, foodstuffs, transportation

Brunei
Brunei

Capital Bandar Seri Begawan, population 429 thousand, official language Malay and English, official currency Brunei Dollar, high income, main imports machines, transportation, metals and foodstuffs, main exports mineral products

Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Capital Sofia, population 7.06 million, official language Bulgarian, official currency Bulgarian Lev, upper-middle income, main imports machines, mineral products, chemical products and metals, main exports machines, metals, mineral products and textiles

Burundi
Burundi

Capital Bujumbura, population 10.87 million, official language Kirundi, French and English, official currency Burundian Franc, low income, main imports chemical products, machines, mineral products and transportation, main exports precious metals and vegetable products

Cameroon
Cameroon

Capital Yaoundé, population 24.3 million, official language English and French, official currency Central African CFA Franc, lower-middle income, main imports machines, mineral products, chemical products, transportation, main exports mineral products, wood products, foodstuffs, vegetable products

Cape Verde
Cape Verde

Capital Praia, population 538 thousand, official language Portuguese and Cape Verde Creole, official currency Cape Verdean Escudo, lower-middle income, main imports mineral products, machines, foodstuffs, animal products, main exports foodstuffs, animal products, machines

Central African Republic
Central African Republic

Capital Bangui, population 5 million, official language French and Sango, official currency Central African CFA Franc, low income, main imports transportation, machines, chemical products, foodstuffs, main exports wood products, transportation, vegetable products

Chad
Chad

Capital N’Djamena, population 12 million, official language Arabic and French, official currency Central African CFA Franc, low income, main imports machines, chemical products, metals, transportation, main exports mineral products, precious metals

Chile
Chile

Capital Santiago, population 18.38 million, official language Spanish, official currency Chilean Peso, high income, main imports machines, transportation, mineral products and chemical products, main exports metals, mineral products, vegetable products and animal products

China
China

Capital Beijing, population 1.39 billion, official language Chinese, official currency Renminbi, upper-middle income, main imports machines, mineral products, transportation and chemical products, main exports machines, textiles and metals

Comoros
Comoros

Capital Moroni, population 827 thousand, official language Comorian, Arabic and French, official currency Comorian Franc, low income, main imports textiles, foodstuffs, metals, machines, main exports vegetable products, chemical products, wood products and metals

Cote d'Ivoire
Cote d'Ivoire

Capital Yamoussoukro, population 24.96 million, official language French, official currency West African CFA Franc, lower-middle, main imports machines, mineral products, chemical products, foodstuffs, vegetable products, main exports foodstuffs, mineral products and vegetable products

Cyprus
Cyprus

Capital Nicosia, population 853 thousand, official language Greek and Turkish, official currency Euro, high income, main imports transportation, mineral products, machines and foodstuffs, main exports chemical products, mineral products, machines and transportation

Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo

Capital Kinshasa, population 86.65 million, official language French, Lingala and Kikongo, official currency Congolese Franc, low income, main imports machines, chemical products, metals and transportation, main exports metals, mineral products and precious metals

Djibouti
Djibouti

Capital Djibouti, population 1.02 million, official language Arabic, French and Somali, official currency Djiboutian Franc, lower-middle income, main imports machines, metals, textiles, transportation, main exports vegetable products, wood products, chemical products and precious metals

Ecuador
Ecuador

Capital Quito, population 16.8 million, official language Spanish, official currency US Dollar, upper-middle income, main imports machines, mineral products, chemical products, transportation, main exports mineral products, vegetable products, animal products, foodstuffs

Egypt
Egypt

Capital Cairo, population 94.8 million, official language Arabic and Egyptian Arabic, official currency Egyptian Pound, lower-middle income, main imports machines, mineral products, metals and vegetable products, main exports mineral products, textiles, vegetable products and precious metals

Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea

Capital Malabo, population 843 thousand, official language Spanish, French and Portuguese, official currency Central African CFA Franc, high income, main imports transportation, machines, foodstuffs, metals, main exports mineral products, wood products

Eritrea
Eritrea

Capital Asmara, population 5.93 million, official language Arabic, Tigrinya and Tigre, official currency Eritrean Nakfa, low income, main imports machines, foodstuffs, vegetable products and chemical products, main exports mineral products and precious metals

Eswatini
Eswatini

Capital Mbabane, population 1.147 million, official language Swazi and English, official currency Swazi Lilangeni, lower-middle income

Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Capital Addis Ababa, 92.65 million, official language Afar, Amharic and Harari, official currency Ethiopian Birr, 196 visa-free passports accepted, main imports machines, transportation, metals, chemical and mineral products, main exports vegetable products, precious metals, machines and textiles

Fiji
Fiji

Capital Suva, population 885 thousand, official language English, Itaukei and Hindi, official currency Fijian Dollar, low income, main imports machines, mineral products, transportation and metals, main exports foodstuffs, animal products, textiles, precious metals and mineral products

France
France

Capital Paris, population 64.8 million, official language French, official currency Euro, high income, main imports machines, transportation, chemical products, mineral products, main exports transportation, machines, chemical products, foodstuffs